ROMA (ROMANI) – THE GREAT INDIAN MIGRATION
Romani are the first Indians to go to Europe largely from the present day Punjab and nearby areas. Linguistic and genetic evidence suggests that the Roma originated in the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent; in particular, the Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab regions of modern-day India. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, then Indian Minister of External Affairs, Sushma Swaraj stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora.
Around 326 BC, the forces of Alexander of Macedon are considered to have transported the first wave of the Roma out of India. This was because they were iron smelters and skilled in making war weapons. The word “Roma” is thought to have originated from the Sanskrit term “doma,” also known as the contemporary “dom” or its variations, which may be found in numerous Indian languages and refers to lower castes involved in a variety of menial tasks and, in some cases, itinerant singing and dancing careers.
According to a 2012 study that analysed around 800,000 genetic variants in 152 Romani people from 13 Romani communities throughout Europe, it concluded that the Roma people fled northern India around 1,500 years ago, and the Roma who currently live in Europe went across the Balkans around 900 years ago.
The Roma, also known as the Romani, are a nomadic people that mostly inhabit Europe and America. Anthropologists, historians, and geneticists generally agree that the Roma’s ancestral homeland is northern India. Zigeuner in Germany, Tsiganes or Manus in France, Tatara in Sweden, Gitano in Spain, Tshingan in Turkey and Greece, Gypsy in the UK, etc. are some of the several names used to refer to the Roma. Some of these names carry blatantly racist overtones and are seen as such by the Romani people.
The Roma (Gypsies) originated in the Punjab region of northern India as a nomadic people and entered Europe between the eighth and tenth centuries C.E. They were called “Gypsies” because Europeans mistakenly believed they came from Egypt. This minority is made up of distinct groups called “tribes” or “nations.”
The Roma are an ethnic people who have migrated across Europe for a thousand years. The Roma culture has a rich oral tradition, with an emphasis on family. Often portrayed as exotic and strange, the Roma have faced discrimination and persecution for centuries. Some of the famous personalities of Roma descent are, painter Pablo Picasso, actor-filmmaker Charlie Chaplin, performer Elvis Presley, Hollywood legend Michael Caine, tennis player Ilie Nastase, and actor Yul Brynner.
Since many Roma are hesitant to declare their ethnicity in official national censuses for fear of being harassed or persecuted, the exact number is unknown. The global population of the Roma minority was believed to be around 20 million as of 2016. About 30 nations in West Asia, Europe, America, and Australia are home to the Roma people. With 2.75 million members, Turkey has the largest Roma population. There are thought to be 800,000 people in Brazil and perhaps 1 million in the US. There are significant Roma populations in Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Spain, and France.
The Romani language is clearly related to those spoken in northern India, and many of the most popular Romani words—including the numerals—are virtually identical to the names they have in contemporary Hindi. Examples include the Romani word for “ek,” which is the same as the Hindi word for “ek,” dui (do), trin (teen), shtaar (chaar), panchi (paanch), sho (chhe), desh (dus), bish (bees), manush (manushya, or man), baal, kaan, and naak, which are the same as the Hindi words for “hair,” “ear,” and “nose”
The Roma and Indian groups share a number of cultural practices, such as the connection of white with mourning, the tradition of mehndi application by Indian brides, the observance of ritual purity rules, and taboos about birth and death. Because a woman giving birth is seen as impure, she must deliver the baby outside of her caravan or tent to prevent contamination. Their close ties to Hindu culture are suggested by the high rate of child marriages and the worship of deities like Shiva, Kali, and Agni.
In popular literature and film, the Roma are portrayed as having unpredictable temperaments and magical or occult abilities, including fortune telling. In addition to the basic misconceptions about them, they are frequently portrayed as robbers or lawbreakers.
Since the commencement of their immigration to Europe, racism has translated into government persecution. In Germany, Italy, and Portugal, they were sold into slavery or slaughtered; they endured prejudice due to the colour of their skin; and they were blamed for bringing the terrible plague to Europe.
Roma people were sent to concentration camps by the Nazis. A statute enabling the denial of citizenship to Roma was adopted in Turkey in 1934. Roma women were compelled to get sterilization in Czechoslovakia in the 1980s. Even now, there are cases of Roma women having their ears cut off and children being taken away from their parents. The removal of 51 illegal Roma camps by the French government in 2010, caused a stir and warnings of retaliation from the EU.
According to a 2011 survey conducted in 11 European nations, only one out of every two Roma children attended school on an average, and only one out of every three Roma adults held a paid job. Nearly half of the Roma populations in these nations experienced prejudice as a result of their ethnicity, and nearly 90% of them lived below the poverty level.
The majority of Roma belonged to the Sinti and Roma family groupings. Both groups spoke dialects of a common language called Romani, based on Sanskrit (the classical language of India). The term “Roma” has come to include both the Sinti and Roma groupings, though some Roma prefer to be known as “Gypsies.” Some Roma are Christian and some are Muslim, having converted during the course of their migrations through Persia, Asia Minor, and the Balkans.
For centuries, the Roma were scorned and persecuted across Europe. Zigeuner, the German word for gypsy, derives from a Greek root meaning “untouchable.”
Many Roma traditionally worked as craftsmen and were blacksmiths, cobblers, tinsmiths, horse dealers, and toolmakers. Others were performers, such as musicians, circus animal trainers, and dancers. By the 1920s, there were also a number of Romani shopkeepers. Some Roma, such as those employed in the German postal service, were civil servants. The number of truly nomadic Roma was on the decline in many places by the early 1900s, although many so-called sedentary Roma often moved seasonally, depending on their occupations.
In 1939, about 1 to 1.5 million Roma lived in Europe. Roughly half of all European Roma live in Eastern Europe, particularly in the Soviet Union and Romania. Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria also had large Romani communities. In Prewar Germany, there were at most 35,000 Roma, most of whom held German citizenship. In Austria, there were approximately 11,000 Roma. Relatively few Roma lived in Western Europe.
The Romani, colloquially known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants. Most of the Romani people live in Europe, and diaspora populations also live in the Americas.
Ukraine: 47,587–260,000 (0.6%)
Romania: 619,007–1,850,000 (3.29–8.3%)
Spain: 750,000–1,500,000 (1.9–3.7%)
Moldova: 12,778–107,100 (3.0%)
Montenegro: 5,251–20,000 (3.7%)
North Macedonia: 53,879–197,000 (9.6%)
Gypsies traveled, taking the DNA and genetic history that they picked up along the way with them. Consequently, it’s not uncommon for a Gypsy individual to get DNA results that reflect a mix that includes South Asian DNA, Middle Eastern DNA, and one or even several European ethnicities.
You may have Romani, Traveller or Gypsy ancestry if your family tree includes common Romani or Gypsy surnames such as Boss, Boswell, Buckland, Chilcott, Codona, Cooper, Doe, Lee, Gray (or Grey), Harrison, Hearn, Heron, Hodgkins, Holland, Lee, Lovell, Loveridge, Scamp, Smith, Wood and Young.
Many groups use names apparently derived from the Romani word kalo or calo, meaning “black” or “absorbing all light”. This closely resembles words for “black” or “dark” in Indo-Aryan languages (e.g. Sanskrit काल kāla: “black”, “of a dark colour“). Likewise, the name of the Dom or Domba people of North India – to whom the Roma have genetic, cultural and linguistic links – has come to imply “dark-skinned“, in some Indian languages. Hence names such as kale and calé may have originated as an exonym or a euphemism for Roma.
Flag of the Romani people
The Romani flag or flag of the Roma (Romani: O styago le romengo, or O romanko flako) is the international flag of the Romani people. It was approved by the representatives of various Romani communities at the first and second World Romani Congresses (WRC), in 1971 and 1978. The flag consists of a background of blue and green, representing the heavens and earth, respectively; it also contains a 16-spoke red dharmachakra, or cartwheel, in the center. The latter element stands for the itinerant tradition of the Romani people and is also an homage to the flag of India, added to the flag by scholar Weer Rajendra Rishi.
Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States began in the 1860s, with Romanichal groups from Great Britain. The most significant number immigrated in the early 20th century, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America.
During World War II, the Nazis embarked on a systematic genocide of the Romani, a process known in Romani as the Porajmos. Romanies were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labour and imprisonment in concentration camps. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (paramilitary death squads) on the Eastern Front. The total number of victims has been variously estimated at between 220,000 and 1,500,000.
The Romani people were also persecuted in Nazi puppet states. In the Independent State of Croatia, the Ustaša killed almost the entire Roma population of 25,000. The concentration camp system of Jasenovac, run by the Ustaša militia and the Croat political police, were responsible for the deaths of between 15,000 and 20,000 Roma.
In Czechoslovakia, they were labelled a “socially degraded stratum“, and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs.
An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which “included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community. The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists,” said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between 1973 and 1991. New cases were revealed up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland “all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups”.
Society, tradition and culture.
Romani society and culture
For centuries, stereotypes and prejudices have had a negative impact on the understanding of Roma culture. Also, because the Roma people live scattered among other populations in many different regions, their ethnic culture has been influenced by interaction with the culture of their surrounding population. Nevertheless, there are some unique and special aspects to Romani culture.
Traditionally, as can be seen on paintings and photos, some Roma men wear shoulder-length hair and a mustache, as well as an earring. Roma women generally have long hair, and Xoraxane Roma women often dye it blonde with henna.
The Roma do not follow a single faith; rather, they often adopt the predominant religion of the country where they are living, according to Open Society, and describe themselves as “many stars scattered in the sight of God.” Some Roma groups are Catholic, Muslim, Pentecostal, Protestant, Anglican or Baptist.
The Roma live by a complex set of rules that govern things such as cleanliness, purity, respect, honor and justice. These rules are referred to as what is “Rromano.” Rromano means to behave with dignity and respect as a Roma person, according to Open Society. “Rromanipé” is what the Roma refer to as their worldview.
Romani social behaviour is strictly regulated by Indian social customs (“marime” or “marhime”), still respected by most Roma (and by older generations of Sinti). This regulation affects many aspects of life and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions) and the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is deemed to be impure for forty days after giving birth.
Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried. Cremation and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism today (the general tendency is for Hindus to practice cremation, though some communities in modern-day South India tend to bury their dead). Animals that are considered to be having unclean habits are not eaten by the community.
Though the groups of Roma are varied, they all do speak one language, called Rromanës. Rromanës has roots in Sanskritic languages, and is related to Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu and Bengali, according to RSG. Some Romani words have been borrowed by English speakers, including “pal” (brother) and “lollipop” (from lolo-phabai-cosh, red apple on a stick).
Traditionally, anywhere from 10 to several hundred extended families form bands, or kumpanias, which travel together in caravans. Smaller alliances, called vitsas, are formed within the bands and are made up of families who are brought together through common ancestry.
Each band is led by a voivode, who is elected for life. This person is their chieftain. A senior woman in the band, called a phuri dai, looks after the welfare of the group’s women and children. In some groups, the elders resolve conflicts and administer punishment, which is based upon the concept of honor. Punishment can mean a loss of reputation and at worst expulsion from the community, according to the RSG.
The Roma place great value on close family ties, according to the Rroma Foundation: “Rroma never had a country — neither a kingdom nor a republic — that is, never had an administration enforcing laws or edicts. For Rroma, the basic ‘unit’ is constituted by the family and the lineage.”
Communities typically involve members of the extended family living together. A typical household unit may include the head of the family and his wife, their married sons and daughters-in-law with their children, and unmarried young and adult children.
The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage. Romani law establishes that the man’s family must pay a bride price to the bride’s parents, but only traditional families still follow it.
Romani typically marry young — often in their teens — and many marriages are arranged. Weddings are typically very elaborate, involving very large and colourful dress for the bride and her many attendants. Though during the courtship phase, girls are encouraged to dress provocatively, sex is something that is not had until after marriage, according to The Learning Channel. Some groups have declared that no girl under 16 and no boy under 17 will be married, according to the BBC.
Once married, the woman joins the husband’s family, where her main job is to tend to her husband’s and her children’s needs and take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men, in general, have more authority than women. Women gain respect and power as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children.
Typically, the Roma love opulence. Romani culture emphasizes the display of wealth and prosperity, according to the Romani Project. Roma women tend to wear gold jewellery and headdresses decorated with coins. Homes will often have displays of religious icons, with fresh flowers and gold and silver ornaments. These displays are considered honourable and a token of good fortune.
Sharing one’s success is also considered honourable, and hosts will make a display of hospitality by offering food and gifts. Generosity is seen as an investment in the network of social relations that a family may need to rely on in troubled times.
The Roma today
While there are still traveling bands, most use cars and RVs to move from place to place rather than the horses and wagons of the past.
Today, most Roma have settled into houses and apartments and are not readily distinguishable. Because of continued discrimination, many do not publicly acknowledge their roots and only reveal themselves to other Roma.
While there is not a physical country affiliated with the Romani people, the International Romani Union was officially established in 1977. In 2000, The 5th World Romany Congress in 2000 officially declared Romani a non-territorial nation.
During the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005-2015), 12 European countries made a commitment to eliminate discrimination against the Roma. The effort focused on education, employment, health and housing, as well as core issues of poverty, discrimination, and gender mainstreaming. However, according to the RSG, despite the initiative, Roma continue to face widespread discrimination.
According to a report by the Council of Europe’s commissioner for human rights, “there is a shameful lack of implementation concerning the human rights of Roma … In many countries hate speech, harassment and violence against Roma are commonplace.”
April 8 is International Day of the Roma, a day to raise awareness of the issues facing the Roma community and celebrate the Romani culture.
I hope the world gives Roma, its much required due and acknowledge them appropriately. Check out the famous Roma below, Cheers!
FAMOUS CELEBRITIES OF ROMANI ORIGIN
- Michael Caine (1933)
- Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977)
- Yul Brynner (1920-1985)
- Elvis Prisley (1935-1977)
- Bob Hoskins (1942-2014)
- Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
- Rita Hayworth (1918-1987)
Politicians and Activists:
Juscelino Kubitschek – Brazilian president. His mother was of Czech Roma descent.
Damian Draghici – (born 1970) Humanitarian, Civil Society Supporter, Ambassador for European Year of Equal Opportunities for All, musician, Romania
Rajko Djuric – (born 1947) Serbian writer and academic, leader of Roma Union of Serbia
Alfonso Mejia-Arias – musician, writer and politician, Mexico
Ian Hancock – Romani scholar and activist, born in UK, living in USA, Professor at the University of Texas, (I highly recommend his book about the Romani ”WE ARE THE ‘ROMANI PEOPLE” first published 2002, my words Laurie.)
Lívia Járóka – Hungarian Member of the European Parliament
Mădălin Voicu – (born 1952) Romanian politician. His father, Ion Voicu, is Romani
Ştefan Răzvan – (? – 1595) Prince of Moldavia, Ruled Moldavia for four months. (Romani father)
Nicolae Păun – Romanian politician
Ágnes Osztolykán – Hungarian politician
Juan de Dios Ramírez Heredia – Ex-member of the European Parliament, founder of the Romani Union, Spain
Viktória Mohácsi – (born 1975) Hungarian Member of the European Parliament
Ronald Lee – (born 1934, in Montreal), Canadian Romani novelist, activist and U.N. delegate
Romani Rose – German Sinto activist
Dávid Daróczi – (1972–2010) Government Spokesperson of the Republic of Hungary
Rudolf Sarközi – chairman of the Austrian Romani association Kulturverein.
Sani Rifati – Serbian activist
Ali Krasniqi – Albanian writer and activist
Bajram Haliti – Kosovar activist
Carlos Miguel – Portuguese minister and mayor
Idália Serrão – Portuguese secretary of state and MP
Juscelino Kubitschek – 21st President of Brazil
Washington Luís – 13th President of Brazil
Alba Flores – Spanish actress
Ceija Stojka – Austrian artist and writer
Constantin S. Nicolăescu-Plopșor – Romanian historian, archeologist, anthropologist and writer
Delia Grigore – Romanian writer
Katarina Taikon – Swedish actress
Marcel Courthiade – French linguist
Milena Hübschmannová – Czech professor
Paul Polansky – American writer
Saša Barbul – Serbian actor and film director
Pierre-Yves André – French (Retired)
Aljoša Asanović – Croatian (Retired)
Richard Carpenter – English (Retired)
Freddy Eastwood – Welsh (Free Agent)
Arturo Garcia, Arzu – Spanish (Free Agent)
André-Pierre Gignac – French (Olympique Marseille)
Dani Güiza – Spanish (Getafe)
Raby Howell – English (Retired)
José Mari – Spanish (Xerez CD)
Petre Marin – Romanian (Retired)
Gigi Meroni – Italian (Retired)
Jesús Navas – Spanish (Sevilla FC)
Bănel Nicoliţă – Romanian (AS Saint-Etienne)
Marian Ognyanov – Bulgarian (Botev Plovdiv)
Christos Patsatzoglou – Greek (PAS Giannina F.C.)
Ricardo Quaresma – Portuguese (Beşiktaş)
José Antonio Reyes – Spanish (Sevilla FC)
Tommaso Vailatti – Italian (Retired)
David Vairelles – French (FC Gueugnon)
Tony Vairelles – French (FC Gueugnon)
Rafael van der Vaart – Dutch (Hamburger SV)
Authors and Writers
Veijo Baltzar – Finnish writer
Rajko Djuric – (born 1947) Serbian writer & activist
Caren Gussoff – American writer. Claims “Romani and mixed heritages”.
Delia Grigore – (born 1972) Romanian writer, academic and activist
Ronald Lee – Canadian writer, Romani activist and lecturer at the University of Toronto.
Matéo Maximoff – French writer
Louise Doughty – British writer
John Bunyan – Christian author
Lafcadio Hearn – Irish writer
Charlie Smith – poet.
Baja Saitovic Lukin – poet
Ceija Stojka – (born 1933) Austrian author and painter
Katarina Taikon – (born 1932) Swedish children’s writer
Bronisława Wajs – (1908–1987) AKA “Papusza”, Polish poet and singer.
David Morley – English
Elena Lacková – Slovak
Hillary Monahan – American
Mariella Mehr – Swiss
Menyhért Lakatos – Hungarian
Muharem Serbezovski – Macedonian
Nina Dudarova – Russian
Rajko Đurić – Serbian
Hedina Tahirović-Sijerčić – Bosnian
Kerope Patkanov – scientist
Rodney “Gipsy” Smith – (1860–1947), British evangelist
August Krogh – scientist, Nobel prize winner
Sofia Kovalevskaya – Major Russian female mathematician of 1/4 Romani descent
Jimmy Marks – litigant in a lawsuit against the city of Spokane, Washington
Settela Steinbach – Holocaust victim
Ceferino Giménez Malla – a Spanish beatified Catholic catechist
Juana Martín Manzano – Spanish fashion designer
Didem – Turkish belly dancer
Timofey Prokofiev – Soviet marine infantryman, Hero of the Soviet Union
Florin Lambagiu – Romanian
Nieky Holzken – Dutch
Gigi Dolin – American
André-Pierre Gignac – French
Andrea Pirlo – Italian
Artur Quaresma – Portuguese
Bănel Nicoliță – Romanian[
Carlos Martins – Portuguese
Carlos Muñoz Cobo – Spanish
Christos Patsatzoglou – Greek
Dejan Savićević – Montenegrin
Diego Rodríguez – Spanish
Dragoslav Šekularac – Serbian
Eric Cantona – French
Freddy Eastwood – Welsh
Georgi Ivanov – Gonzo – Bulgarian
Gigi Meroni – Italian
István Pisont – Hungarian
János Farkas – Hungarian
José Mari – Spanish
Marius Lăcătuș – Romanian
Milan Baroš – Czech
Quique Sánchez Flores – Spanish
Rab Howell – English
Ricardo Quaresma – Portuguese
Telmo Zarra – Spanish
Zlatan Ibrahimović – Swedish
Zvonimir Boban – Croatian
Cinema and Theatre
Alba Flores – Spanish actress
Bob Hoskins – English actor
Charlie Chaplin – English comic actor
Jesús Castro– Spanish actor
Joaquín Cortés – Spanish ballet and flamenco dancer
Leonor Teles – Portuguese film director
Manoush – French actress
Sandro de América – Argentine actor
Ștefan Bănică Sr. – Romanian actor
Tony Gatlif – French film maker of Algerian Kabyle and Spanish Roma origin.
Yul Brynner – Russian actor and president honour of the Unión Romaní
Leonard Whiting – British actor of English and Irish ancestry who claims to “also have some Gypsy blood”.
Marcia Nicole Lakatos known as Manoush – Dutch-German actress. Her mother is of Manouche origin.
Soledad Miranda – Andalusian Flamenco Dancer and later Horror Film Actress from Seville, mother was Gitana
Nikolai Slichenko – Russian actor
Angel Dark – Slovak pornstar
Moira Orfei – Italian actress
Antonio Solario – Italian artist
Helios Gómez – Spanish artist, writer and poet
Serge Poliakoff (1906–1969) – painter
Otto Mueller – painter and printmaker, Sinti mother
Micaela Flores Amaya, La Chunga, Flamenco dancer and painter
Joe Machine, (1973) British Stuckist painter
Damian Le Bas, English artist
Delaine Le Bas, English artist
La Chunga, Spanish painter
Dawid Kostecki – Polish light heavyweight boxer of Romani decent
Ivailo Marinov – also known as Ismail Mustafov, Ismail Huseinov or Ivailo Khristov) is a Rom Bulgarian boxer, who won the bronze medal at the 1980 Summer Olympics in light flyweight, and the gold medal in the same category at the 1988 Summer Olympics
Serafim Todorov – was a Bulgarian/Georgian boxer at the 1996 Summer Olympics who won a silver medal. He is the last boxer to ever defeat the highly regarded Floyd Mayweather Jr.
Boris Georgiev – is an amateur boxer from Bulgaria who won a bronze medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in the Light Welterweight class
Jem Mace – Bareknuckle Boxing Champion, Father of Modern Boxing; called “The Gypsy,” but denies Romani ancestry in his autobiography
Johann Wilhelm Trollmann – German light-heavyweight boxer killed during the Porajmos
Silvio Branco – Italian light heavyweight Boxing Champion
Michele di Rocco – Italian Light Welterweight Boxing Champion
Faustino Reyes – Spanish Boxing he won the silver medal in the featherweight division (– 57 kg), 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona
Billy Joe Saunders – British Boxing, represented Great Britain in the 2008 Olympics
Norbert Kalucza – Hungarian Boxing
Jakob Bamberger – German amateur boxer, twice the German Vice-flyweight champion, Olympic selection in 1936, in the years 1970/80 activist in Sinti civil rights movement
Luke Tyson Fury – British professional boxer who fights in the heavyweight division
Dorel Simion – Romanian
Marian Simion – Romanian
Samuel Carmona Heredia – Spanish
Zoltan Lunka – Hungarian
Albert Kraus – Dutch
- ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). “Ethnologue: Languages of the World” (online) (16th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL. Retrieved 15 September 2010. Ian Hancock‘s 1987 estimate for ‘all Gypsies in the world’ was 6 to 11 million.
- ^ “EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty”. BBC News. 5 April 2011.
- ^ “The Roma”. Nationalia. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- ^ “Rom”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 September 2010. … estimates of the total world Roma population range from two million to five million.
- ^ Smith, J. (2008). The marginalization of shadow minorities (Roma) and its impact on opportunities (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University).
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kayla Webley (13 October 2010). “Hounded in Europe, Roma in the U.S. Keep a Low Profile”. Time. Retrieved 3 October 2015. Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U.S. at about one million.
- ^ “Falta de políticas públicas para ciganos é desafio para o governo” [Lack of public policy for Romani is a challenge for the administration] (in Portuguese). R7. 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012. The Special Secretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality estimates the number of “ciganos” (Romanis) in Brazil at 800,000 (2011). The 2010 IBGE Brazilian National Census encountered Romani camps in 291 of Brazil’s 5,565 municipalities.
- ^ “Roma integration in Spain”. European Commission. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s “Roma and Travellers Team. Tools and Texts of Reference. Estimates on Roma population in European countries (excel spreadsheet)”. rm.coe.int Council of Europe Roma and Travellers Division.
- ^ “Estimated by the Society for Threatened Peoples”. Society for Threatened Peoples. 17 May 2007. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021.
- ^ “The Situation of Roma in Spain” (PDF). Open Society Institute. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2010. The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos to be a maximum of 650,000.
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España : Un análisis contrastado de la Encuesta del CIS a Hogares de Población Gitana 2007” (PDF). mscbs.gob.es. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019. Tabla 1. La comunidad gitana de España en el contexto de la población romaní de la Unión Europea. Población Romaní: 750.000 […] Por 100 habitantes: 1.87% […] se podrían llegar a barajar cifras […] de 1.100.000 personas
- ^ “Roma integration in Romania”. European Commission. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
- ^ 2011 census data, based on table 7 Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 621,573 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja). Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards . International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP’s Regional Bureau for Europe Archived 7 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine, World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine).
- ^ “Rezultatele finale ale Recensământului din 2011 – Tab8. Populația stabilă după etnie – județe, municipii, orașe, comune” (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 5 July 2013. Archived from the original (XLS) on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2013. However, some organizations claim that there are many more Romanis in Romania.
- ^ Schleifer, Yigal (22 July 2005). “Roma rights organizations work to ease prejudice in Turkey”. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- ^ “Türkiye’deki Kürtlerin sayısı!” [The number of Kurds in Turkey!] (in Turkish). 6 June 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
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- Gresham, David; Morar, Bharti; Underhill, Peter A.; Passarino, Giuseppe; Lin, Alice A.; Wise, Cheryl; Angelicheva, Dora; Calafell, Francesc; Oefner, Peter J.; Shen, Peidong; Tournev, Ivailo; de Pablo, Rosario; Kuĉinskas, Vaidutis; Perez-Lezaun, Anna; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin; Kalaydjieva, Luba (December 2001). “Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)”. The American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (6): 1314–1331. doi:10.1086/324681. PMC 1235543. PMID 11704928.
- Kalaydjieva, Luba; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A; Angelicheva, Dora; de Knijff, Peter; Rosser, ZoëH; Hurles, Matthew E; Underhill, Peter; Tournev, Ivailo; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin (February 2001). “Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages”. European Journal of Human Genetics. 9 (2): 97–104. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200597. PMID 11313742. S2CID 21432405.
- Ringold, Dena (2000), Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges, Washington, DC: World Bank.
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- McDowell, Bart (1970). Gypsies, wanderers of the world. National Geographic Society. Special Publications Division. ISBN 978-0870440885.
- Sancar Seckiner’s comprehensible book South (Güney), 2013, consists of 12 article and essays. One of them, Ikiçeşmelik, highlights Turkish Romani People’s life. Ref. ISBN 978-605-4579-45-7.
- Sancar Seckiner’ s new book Thilda’s House (Thilda’nın Evi), 2017, underlines struggle of Istanbul Romani People who have been swept away from nearby Kadikoy. Ref. ISBN 978-605-4160-88-4.
European countries Roma links
- History the Roma and Sinti in Germany.
- “General introduction”, History of the Roma in Austria, AT: Uni Graz.
- “History of the Roma in Czech Republic”. CZ: Rommuz. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013..
- Deportation, EU: Romas Inti. History of some Roma Europeans
- Gypsies in France, 1566–2011, FYI France
The concentration, labor, ghetto camps that the Roma were persecuted in during World War II
- Auschwitz, archived from the original on 6 May 2012, retrieved 28 October 2013.
- “Hodonin”, History: Camps, CZ: Holocaus.
- History, CZ: Lety memorial, archived from the original on 26 March 2017, retrieved 28 October 2013.
- “The situation of the Roma in the European Union” (resolution). European Parliament. 28 April 2005. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007..
- “Final report on the human rights situation of the Roma, Sinti and travellers in Europe”. The European Commissioner for Human Rights (Council of Europe). 15 February 2006..
- Shot in remote areas of the Thar desert in Northwest India, Jaisalmer Ayo: Gateway of the Gypsies on YouTube captures the lives of vanishing nomadic communities who are believed to share common ancestors with the Roma people – released 2004
- European Roma Rights Centre.
- The Gypsy Lore Society. Beginning in 1888, the Gypsy Lore Society started to publish a journal that was meant to dispel rumors about their lifestyle.
Museums and libraries
- Museum of Romani Culture (in Czech), Brno, CZ.
- Studii romani (specialized library with archive), Sofia, BG, archived from the original on 21 August 2006, retrieved 21 August 2006.
- Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma, Heidelberg, DE.
- Ethnographic Museum (in Polish), Tarnów, PL.
- “Who we Were, Who we Are: Kosovo Roma Oral History Collection”. March 2004. The most comprehensive collection of information on Kosovo‘s Roma in existence.
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